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Prison Inmate Inventory

Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc.
www.prison-inmate-assessment.com

 

 

Objective  and  Accurate  Inmate  Screening

 

 

 

The Prison Inmate Inventory (PII) is a prison inmate (male and female) test. The PII consists of 161 items and takes 35 minutes to complete. The PII has ten (10) scales (measures): The Prison Inmate Inventory (PII) has been standardized on over 75,000 inmates.

 

 Applications

Description

The Prison Inmate Inventory (PII) is designed for prison inmate (male and female) assessment.  The PII has 161 items and takes, approximately, 40 to 45 minutes to complete.  PII reports are scored and printed on-site.  The PII has ten (10) measures (scales):

1. Truthfulness Scale: Measures how truthful the inmate was while completing the test.  It identifies guarded and defensive inmates, who attempt to minimize problems, or fake their answers.  It identifies “faking good.”

2. Violence (Lethality) Scale: Measures the use of force, to injure, damage, or destroy.  It identifies inmates, who are dangerous to self and others.

3. Antisocial Scale: Measures antisocial attitudes and behavior.  It identifies inmates, who are opposed to society and social norms.

4. Adjustment Scale: Measures the inmate’s ability to cope with incarceration.  It evaluates the inmate’s emotional and social adjustment.

5. Self-Esteem Scale: Describes the person, one believes oneself to be.  This scale measures inmate worthiness, or feelings of self-worth.

6. Judgment Scale: Measures an inmate’s ability to draw conclusions, from events and the actions of people around them.  Inmate risk increases, as judgment decreases.

7. Distress Scale: Measures inmate discomfort, unhappiness and pain.  Distress incorporates anxiety, depression and concern.

8. Alcohol Scale: Measures alcohol proneness and severity of alcohol-related problems.  Alcohol refers to beer, wine and liquor.

9. Drug Scale: Measures drug abuse proneness and the severity of drug-related problems. Drugs include marijuana, crack, cocaine, ecstasy, amphetamines, barbiturates, and heroin.

10. Stress Coping Abilities Scale: Measures an inmate’s ability to handle stress.  Stress exacerbates emotional and mental health symptoms.  This is a non-introversive way to screen diagnosable, mental health problems.

The PII assesses attitudes and behaviors, yielding an inmate profile.  Paper-pencil, test administration takes, on average, 35 to 40 minutes, and tests are computer scored on-site, with reports printed within three minutes.

 

HOW TO PROCEED

Call (602) 234-3506, e-mail info@riskandneeds.com, or fax (602) 266-8227, attention: Sheryl Karca, Risk & Needs Assessments Inc.'s Director. She or our staff can answer your questions, establish a free, one-month, test utilization period, or schedule an on-site visit. Dr. Lindeman or an associate can come to your offices and speak with your staff. These, on-site visits are free.

 

PII Reports

In brief, PII reports summarize the inmate’s self-reported history, explain what attained scores mean, and offer specific, score-related recommendations.

 

Within three minutes of test data entry, automated, (computer generated) four-page reports are printed on-site. These reports summarize a lot of information in an easily understood format. For example, these reports include a PII profile (graph), which summarizes inmate findings at a glance.  Also, included are attained scale scores, an explanation of what each score means, and specific, score-related recommendations.

 

Significant items (direct admissions) are highlighted, and answers to multiple choice items are presented. Emphasis is placed on generating meaningful reports that are helpful and easily understood.

 

Click this link, to review a Prison Inmate Inventory (PII) Example Report.

 

Local Standardization

Prior to introducing the PII to a new (new in terms of PII use) prison population, Risk & Needs offers 200 free tests, at no cost to establish test standardization and accuracy.

Click this link, to review a Prison Inmate Inventory (PII) Research Study.

Click this link, to review an additional,   Prison Inmate Inventory (PII) Research Study.

PII Database

The PII system contains a proprietary database.  Earlier, it was noted that all used PII diskettes are returned to Risk & Needs, and the test data, along with related demographics, is down-loaded into the PII database. This database includes test data for over 75,000 inmates, and allows for ongoing research and testing program summaries -- capabilities that were not possible before.  Ongoing research insures quality control. Test program summaries provide for program self-evaluation.

The built-in, database permits ongoing research and annual program summary -- at no additional cost.  As discussed earlier, when the 25 or 50 tests on a diskette are used, the diskette is returned to Risk & Needs, checked for any viruses, and downloaded into the expanding PII database.  Advantages of a built-in database are many, and include database (research) analysis, and annual summary reports.

Returned diskettes can be summarized on a state, correctional institution, or departmental basis -- at no additional cost to users.  Annual summary reports provide information for testing program, self-evaluation.

 
Reliability, Validity and Accuracy

The Prison Inmate Inventory (PII) has a built-in database that insures inclusion of all tests administered, in a confidential (no names) manner.  And these reliability, validity, and accuracy statistics are reported in the document titled “PII: An Inventory of Scientific Findings.”  Annual database analysis has revealed that PII scales maintain very high reliability coefficients.

Inventory of Scientific Findings: Much of the PII research has been gathered together in one document titled “PII: An Inventory of Scientific Findings.”  This document summarizes PII research chronologically -- as the studies were completed. This innovative, chronological, reporting format was established largely due to the existence of the PII database, which permits annual database analysis of all tests administered.  It also allows the reader to review the evolution of the PII, to its current state-of-the-art status.

Click this link, to review the Prison Inmate Inventory (PII) Scientific Findings.

The internal consistencies (coefficient alpha) for PII scales are reported, here, for 20,780 inmates screened in the year 2000. 

 

PII Reliability, N=20,780 Inmates

 PII
Scales

Coefficient
Alpha

Significance
Level

Truthfulness

.89

.001

Adjustment

.92

.001

Violence

.89

.001

Antisocial

.89

.001

Distress

.89

.001

Alcohol

.94

.001

Drug

.95

.001

Judgment

.91

.001

Self-Esteem

.91

.001

Stress Coping

.91

.001

All PII scales have alpha coefficients, well, above the professionally, accepted standard of .80, and are highly reliable. All coefficient alphas are significant, at the p < .001 level.

PII research extends over 20 years.  Many studies have been conducted on thousands (not just hundreds) of inmates, using several validation methods. Early studies used criterion measures, and were validated with other tests, e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) L Scale, MMPI F Scale, SAQ-Adult Probation, 16-PF, MMPI Psychopathic Deviate Scale, MacAndrews, MAST, MMPI Anxiety Scale, MAS (Taylor Manifest Anxiety) Scale, and TSC-VII Scale.  Much of this research is summarized in “PII: An Inventory of Scientific Findings.”  Subsequently, many discriminant validity (first versus multiple offenders) and predictive, validity (treatment versus non-treatment) database analyses have supported PII reliability and validity.

PII norms are based on inmates, who now exceed 75,000 individuals.  These norms are updated annually for each PII scale.  Separate norms are available for gender (males and females), ethnicity (Caucasian, Black and Hispanic), and geographic (state-by-state) regions.  This database research is ongoing.

 

Advantages of Screening

Screening or assessment instruments filter out individuals, with serious problems that may require referral, for more comprehensive evaluations and/or treatment.  This filtering system works, as follows:

 

Prison Inmate Inventory Risk Ranges

 Risk

Risk Range

Total

Category

Percentile

Percentage

Low Risk

  0 - 39%

39%

Medium Risk

40 - 69%

30%

Problem Risk

70 - 89%

20%

Severe Problem

90 - 100%

11%

Reference to the above, Risk Range table shows that a problem is not identified, until a scale score is at the 70th percentile or higher.  This procedure is eminently fair, and it avoids extremes, i.e., over-identification and under-identification of problems.

A department, state, or corrections system policy might refer clients, with identified “severe problems,” for intervention or treatment services.  In this example, 11%, of the inmates screened, identified as having severe problematic behaviors. The remaining 89%, of the inmates screened, would not be referred for additional (and expensive) services.

Potential for budgetary savings (dollars) is large, with no compromises to inmates receiving appropriate evaluation and/or treatment services.  The upshot is that more inmates would receive appropriate help.  Without a screening program, there is, usually, more risk of over- or under-utilization of additional professional services.

Unique PII Features

Truthfulness Scale identifies denial, problem minimization, and faking. It is, now, clear that many inmates attempt to minimize their problems. A Truthfulness Scale is now a necessary component in contemporary inmate tests.  The PII Truthfulness Scale has been validated with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), polygraph exams, other tests, truthfulness studies, and experienced staff judgment. The PII Truthfulness Scale has been demonstrated to be reliable, valid, and accurate.  In some respects, the PII Truthfulness Scale is similar to the MMPI’s L and F Scales.  It consists of a number of items that most people agree, or disagree with.

Truth-Corrected Scores have proven to be very important for assessment accuracy.  This proprietary truth-correction program is comparable to the MMPI K Scale correction.  The PII Truthfulness Scale has been correlated with the other nine (9) scales.  The Truth-Correction equation, then, converts raw scores to Truth-Corrected scores. Truth-Corrected scores are more accurate than raw scores.  Raw scores reflect what the inmate wants you to know.  Truth-Corrected scores reveal what the inmate is trying to hide.

Stress Coping Abilities Scale measures how well the inmate handles stress, tension, and pressure.  How well a person handles stress can affect their adjustment and mental health.  We, now, know that stress exacerbates emotional and mental health symptomatology.  Using this scale is a non-introversive way to screen for established, (diagnosable) mental health problems.  An inmate scoring at, or above the 90th percentile, on the Stress Coping Abilities Scale, might be referred for a diagnosis and treatment plan. 

This is more than just another alcohol or drug test.  In addition to alcohol and drug use and abuse assessment, the PII assesses other important areas of inquiry, like truthfulness, denial, and faking, violence (lethality) proneness, antisocial attitudes, self-esteem, feelings of distress, and judgment.  The Stress Coping Abilities Scale was discussed earlier.  The PII is, specifically, designed for inmate (male and female) assessment.  It provides the information needed for understanding inmate attitudes and behavior.

The PII can be administered in four different ways: 1. Paper-pencil, test booklet format, which is the most popular, testing procedure.  (PII English and Spanish test booklets and answer sheets are available at no added cost.)  2.  PII tests given, directly, on the computer screen.  3. Human Voice Audio, in English and Spanish.   (This involves a computer, a headset and the inmate uses the up-down arrow keys.  As the inmate goes from question to answer with the arrow keys, the question or answer is highlighted on the monitor [screen] and, simultaneously, read to the inmate.) And, 4. Optical Scanner scoring for high volume, testing agencies.  These four administration modes are discussed in the “PII: Training Manual.”  Each test administration mode has advantages and some limitations.  Risk & Needs offers these four testing modes, so test users can select the administration mode that is, optimally, suited to their needs.

Reading Impaired Assessment.  Reading impaired inmates represent 20+ percent of inmates tested.  This represents a serious problem, to many inmate assessment procedures.  In contrast to other test providers, Risk & Needs has developed an alternative, for dealing with this problem: Human Voice Audio.

Human Voice Audio presentation, of the PII in English and Spanish, helps resolve many reading and cultural difference issues.  An inmate’s passive vocabularies are often greater than their active vocabularies.  Hearing items read out loud often helps reduce both cultural and communication problems.  This PII administration mode requires a computer, earphones, and simple instructions, regarding how to operate the up-down arrow keys on the computer keyboard.

To maintain confidentiality,   Risk & Needs encourages test users to delete inmate names from diskettes, before they are returned to Risk & Needs.  Once inmate names are deleted, they are gone and cannot be retrieved.  Deleting inmate names does not delete demographics or test data, which is downloaded into the PII database for subsequent analysis. The proprietary, “name deletion” procedure involves a few keystrokes, and insures client confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (Federal Regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501) requirements.

Test Data Input Verification allows the person who inputs the test data, from the answer sheet into the computer, to verify the accuracy of their data input.  In brief, test data is input twice, and any inconsistencies, between the first and second data entry, are highlighted, until corrected.  When the first and second data entry match, or are the same, the staff person can continue.  This proprietary, Test Data Input Verification procedure is optional, yet, it is strongly recommended by Risk & Needs.

 

Selecting an inmate screening test

If you are selecting an inmate (male and female) assessment instrument, the following Comparison Checklist should prove helpful.  This checklist summarizes important, assessment and screening qualities.  The “Other” column represents any other test you might want to compare to the PII. 

Click this link, to review the Prison Inmate Inventory (PII) Comparison Checklist.

       For cost information, click on this COST link.

PII  SCALE INTERPRETATION

The following table is a starting point for interpreting PII scale scores. 

SCALE  RANGES 

 

Risk Range

Total

Risk Category

Percentile

Percentage

Low Risk

  0 - 39%

39%

Medium Risk

40 - 69%

30%

Problem Risk

70 - 89%

20%

Severe Problem

90 - 100%

11%

A problem is not identified, until a scale score is at the 70th percentile or higher.  Elevated, scale scores refer to percentile scores that are at, or above the 70th percentile.  Severe problems are identified by scale scores at or above the 90th percentile. Severe problems represent the highest, 11 percent of inmates evaluated with the PII. The PII has been normed on over 75,000 inmates. And, this normative sample continues to expand, with each PII test that is administered.

 

 SCALE INTERPRETATION

        1. Truthfulness Scale: Measures how truthful the inmate was while completing the test.  It identifies a guarded and defensive inmate, who attempts to "fake good."  A score at, or below the 89th percentile, means that all PII scale scores attained are accurate. A scale score, in the 70 to 89th percentile range, is valid, because it has been Truth-Corrected. A score, at or above the 90th percentile, means that all Prison Inmate Inventory (PII) scale scores attained are inaccurate (invalid), because the inmate was overly guarded, read things into test items that weren’t there, was minimizing problems, or was caught faking answers.  An inmate, with a reading impairment, might also score in this 90-100th percentile range.  If not consciously deceptive, an inmate, with an elevated Truthfulness Scale score,i is uncooperative, fails to understand test items, or has a need to appear "in a good light."  The Truthfulness Scale score is important, because it shows whether, or not the inmate answered the PII test items honestly.  A Truthfulness Scale score, at or below the 89th percentile, indicates that all, other, PII scale scores are accurate.  One of the first things to check, when reviewing a PII report, is the Truthfulness Scale score.

        2. Violence (Lethality) Scale: Identifies inmates who are dangerous to themselves and others.  It is defined as the expression of rage and hostility, through physical force.  Violence is aggression, in its most extreme and unacceptable form. Elevated scorers can be demanding and sensitive to perceived criticism, and are insightless, about how they express their anger/ hostility. Severe, problem scorers should not be ignored, as they are threatening and very dangerous. A particularly, unstable and volatile individual is identified, when an elevated Violence Scale score is attained, along with an elevated Antisocial, Alcohol, Drug, or Judgment Scale score. Substance abuse, antisocial attitudes, and poor judgment can contribute to dangerousness. The more of these scale scores that are elevated, with the Violence Scale, the worse the prognosis.  An elevated, Adjustment Scale or Stress Coping Abilities Scale provides insight, regarding codeterminants, and possible treatment recommendations. A severe, problem, Violence Scale score, in conjunction with an elevated Distress Scale and/or Self-Esteem Scale score, suggests suicidal ideation, and should be explored. The Violence Scale score can be interpreted independently, or in combination with other PII scales.

        3. Antisocial Scale: Measures antisocial attitudes and behavior. Antisocial is defined, as opposed to society or existing social organization and moral codes. Antisocial behavior refers to aggressive, impulsive, and sometimes, violent actions that flout social and ethical codes, such as laws and property rights.  This behavior pattern, often, begins with a conduct disorder, involving lying, stealing, fighting, cruelty, truancy, vandalism, theft, and substance abuse. Elevated, Antisocial Scale scores are often associated with non-internalization, of recognized conventions. Many, high scorers manifest a, seeming, inability to profit from experience. An elevated, Antisocial Scale score, in conjunction with an elevated Alcohol Scale, Drug Scale, or Violence Scale score, is a malignant sign, prognostically.  A severe, problem Stress Coping Ability Scale score, with an elevated, severe, problem Antisocial Scale, suggests the possibility of a suspicious/paranoid, mental health problem.  Continuing, a severe, problem, Self-Esteem Scale score and/or Distress Scale score, accompanying a severe, problem, Antisocial Scale score, could be a suicidal ideation, or explosive warning.  The elevations of the Self-Esteem and Antisocial Scale scores can help determine if the inmate’s hostility is internalized (a self-esteem issue), or externalized (antisocial behavior). An accompanying, elevated Judgment Scale score can be another malignant, prognostic sign. The Antisocial Scale can be interpreted independently, or in combination with other PII scales.

        4. Adjustment Scale: Measures the inmate’s ability to adjust to incarceration, which can be a very stressful experience.  Inmate adjustment requires modification of the inmate’s attitudes and behavior.  Stressors vary widely, from a controlled environment (along with frustration, humiliation and monotony), to a myriad of emotion-provoking events.  When the Adjustment Scale score is elevated -- review other PII scales. For example, is the inmate also dangerous (Violence Scale), antisocial (Antisocial Scale), suffering from a substance abuse (Alcohol and Drug Scale) problem, or manifesting poor feelings of self-worth (Self-Esteem Scale)? An elevated, Adjustment Scale score suggests one level of intervention, whereas an Adjustment Scale score, in the severe problem range, suggests other intervention options. An elevated, Adjustment Scale score, with an elevated Distress Scale score, is suggestive of environmental conflict. Similarly, elevated, Alcohol and/or Drug Scale scores can identify focal issues, impacting upon the inmate’s adjustment.  The Adjustment Scale can be interpreted independently, or in combination with other PII scales.

        5. Self-Esteem: Measures an inmate’s feelings of self-worth.  This scale is a reflection of the inmate’s self-acceptance, self-approval, and self-respect.  The concept of self evolves from self-evaluation of one’s ability, personal worth, attainment of goals, and achieving one’s potential. The circumstances preceding their incarceration and present environmental milieu results in many inmates having impaired self-esteem.  This is another example of the importance of standardizing the PII, on the norms of inmates.  Self-Esteem Scale scores are based on thousands of inmates' scores.  An elevated, (70 to 89th percentile) Self-Esteem Scale score indicates impaired self-esteem, whereas, a score, in the serious, problem (90 to 100th percentile) range, reflects established feelings of worthlessness, and loss of self-respect.  An elevated, Self-Esteem Scale score, with Adjustment and/or Distress Scale score even higher, is suggestive of severe, environmental conflict, or suicidal ideation. In contrast, concurrently, elevated Judgment, Antisocial, or Violence Scale scores are often associated with acting out.  When these scale scores are higher, than the Self-Esteem Scale score (e.g., in the severe problem range), they suggest a very dangerous inmate. The frequent, references to self-esteem issues in the clinical literature, emphasizes its importance in inmate intervention/treatment programming.  And, as discussed earlier, the Self-Esteem Scale score can be interpreted independently, or in combination with other scale scores.

        6. Judgment Scale: Measures an inmate’s ability to formulate opinions and/or draw conclusions, from the actions of people and events around them. Distortions in judgment are often maladaptive, and based on faulty motives, due to peer pressure, concrete thinking, psychopathology, or infantile wishes. Judgment Scale scores indicate the types of decisions inmates make in their lives. The relationship, between “judgment” and “intelligence,” is an empirical question that needs further study.  However, we know that a very, high, (severe problem) Judgment Scale score may result from an inmate not understanding test items (which is, usually, detected by the Truthfulness Scale score). It, also, appears that Judgment Scale scores are, often, interactive with other PII scale scores.  In general, as judgment decreases -- inmate risk increases.  The Judgment Scale score can be interpreted independently of other scales.

        7. Distress Scale: Measures inmate discomfort, unhappiness, and pain. Distressed inmates are very concerned, bothered, and upset.  Distress is one of the most, common reasons people initiate counseling, or psychotherapy.  And, it often serves as the beginning point in clinical inquiry. The magnitude of the Distress Scale score is important. Elevated, scores indicate something is wrong.  Distress Scale scores, in the severe, problem range (90 to 100th percentile), indicate the inmate is hurting, overwhelmed, and desperate. A severe, problem, Distress Scale score, in conjunction with a severe, problem, Self-Esteem Scale and/or Stress Coping Abilities Scale score, suggests very serious emotional problems, and is, usually, a malignant sign.  The Distress Scale score can be interpreted independently of other PII scales.

        8. Alcohol Scale: Measures alcohol use and the severity of abuse.  Alcohol refers to beer, wine, and liquor.  It is a licit substance.  An elevated, (70 to 89th percentile) Alcohol Scale score is indicative of an emerging drinking problem.  An Alcohol Scale score, in the severe, problem (90 to 100th percentile) range identifies a serious drinking problem.

        Since a history of alcohol problems could result in an abstainer (current non-drinker) attaining a low to medium-risk score, precautions have been built in to the PII, to correctly identify “recovering alcoholics.”  Several PII items are printed in the “significant items” and the “multiple choice” (page 4) sections, of the PII report, for quick reference.  These “recovering alcohol” items include the following: inmate substance abuse history (item 137); drinking self-description (item 140); inmate’s desire for alcohol treatment (item 141); inmate’s self-admission to a drinking problem (item 142); and the inmate’s answer to the “recovering alcoholic” question (item 143). In addition, the risk range paragraphs (printed for elevated, Alcohol Scale scores) clearly state that the inmate may be a “recovering alcoholic.”

        In intervention and/or treatment settings, the inmate’s Alcohol Scale score helps staff members work through inmate denial. Most inmates accept the objective and standardized Alcohol Scale score, as accurate and relevant. This is, particularly, true, when it is explained that elevated scores don’t occur by chance. The inmate must make a definite, pattern of alcohol-related admissions, for an elevated score to occur.  And Alcohol Scale scores are based on the scores of thousands of inmates, who have completed the PII.

        An elevated, Alcohol Scale score, in conjunction with other elevated scores, indicates magnification of the severity of the other, elevated scores, when the inmate drinks.  For example, an inmate, with an elevated, Violence Scale score, who, also, has an elevated, Alcohol Scale score, is even, more dangerous, when drinking

When both Alcohol and Drug Scales are elevated, the higher score indicates whether the inmate’s substance of choice is alcohol or a drug.  When both are in the severe problem range, explore polysubstance abuse.  The Alcohol Scale can, also, be interpreted independently.

9. Drug Scale: Measures drug use and the severity of abuse.  Drugs refer to marijuana, cocaine, crack, ice, amphetamines, barbiturates, heroin, etc.  These are illicit substances.  An elevated, (70 to 89th percentile) Drug Scale score is indicative of an emerging, drug problem.  A Drug Scale score, in the severe, problem (90 to 100th percentile) range, identifies a serious illicit drug abuser.

Similar to the Alcohol Scale, a history of drug-related problems could result in an abstainer (drug history, but not presently using or abusing drugs) attaining a low to medium-risk score.  Precautions have been built in to the PII, to correctly identify “recovering drug abusers.”  Several, PII items are printed in the “significant items” and the “multiple choice” (page 4) sections of PII reports, for easy reference.  These “recovering drug abuser” items include the following: inmate substance abuse history (item 137); drug use self-description (item 140); admission to a current drug problem (item 142); the inmate’s answer to the “recovering drug abuser” question (item 143); and self-description of the inmate’s drug use (item 144). It should be noted that the elevated, Drug Scale score paragraphs (in the PII report) clearly state that the inmate may be a “recovering” drug abuser.

In intervention and treatment settings, the inmate's Drug Scale score helps the staff work through inmate denial in a way, similar, to that discussed earlier, for the Alcohol Scale. And, an elevated, Drug Scale score, in conjunction with other elevated scale scores, indicates magnification of the severity of the other, elevated scores, when the inmate uses drugs.  For example, an elevated, Violence Scale score, in conjunction with an elevated Drug Scale score, indicates an increase in the severity, and risk associated with the Violence Scale, when the inmate uses drugs.

When both the Drugs and Alcohol Scale scores are elevated, the higher score indicates whether the inmate’s substance of choice is alcohol or a drug. When both are in the severe problem range, explore polysubstance abuse.  The Drug Scale can also be interpreted independently.

10. Stress Coping Abilities Scale: Measures how well the inmate copes with stress.  It is now accepted that stress exacerbates symptoms of mental and emotional problems. Thus, an elevated Stress Coping Abilities Scale score, in conjunction with other elevated PII scales, helps explain the inmate’s situation.  When an inmate doesn’t handle stress well, other existing problems are often exacerbated.  Such problem augmentation applies to substance abuse, behavioral acting-out, and attitudinal problems.

        An elevated Stress Coping Abilities Scale score can, also, indicate exacerbated emotional and mental health symptomatology.  When a Stress Coping Abilities Scale score is in the severe problem (90 to 100th percentile) range, it is very likely that the inmate has a diagnosable mental health problem.  In these instances, referral to a certified/licensed mental health professional might be warranted for a diagnosis and treatment plan. Lower, elevated scores suggest possible referral alternatives, like stress management counseling.  The Stress Coping Abilities Scale score can be interpreted independently, or in combination with other Prison Inmate Inventory scales.

        In conclusion, it was noted that there are several “levels” of PII interpretation, ranging from viewing the PII as a self-report, to interpreting scale elevations and inter-relationships.  Staff members can, then, put PII test report findings within the context of the inmate’s life and corrections situation.

Confidentiality. Risk & Needs encourages test users to delete client names from diskettes, before they are returned to Risk & Needs.  Once client names are deleted, they are gone and cannot be retrieved.  Deleting client names does not delete demographics or test data, which is downloaded into each test's expanding database, for subsequent analysis. The proprietary, “name deletion” procedure involves a few keystrokes, and insures client confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (Federal Regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501) requirements.

        Additional PII information can be provided, upon request. Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc.’s telephone number is (602) 234-3506; our fax number is (602) 266-8227, and our e-mail address is info@riskandneeds.com.  Our website address is www.riskandneeds.com.

 

This completes the discussion of the Prison Inmate Inventory. 

    

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